Tuesday, 31 July 2018
Monday, 30 July 2018
John Tells About This Book
1 Thessalonians 5 New International Version (NIV)
Friday, 27 July 2018
Malachi 3:10 Malachi 3:10 New International Version (NIV)
Malachi 2 New International Version (NIV)
Thursday, 26 July 2018
Matthew 24 New Living Translation (NLT)
Sunday, 15 July 2018
Our Founders: Bobby and Sherry Love A Child preaches the gospel to every creature. Bobby and Sherry Burnette are founders and directors of Love A Child, Inc. They began their ministry by preaching on street corners, under gospel tents, in auditoriums and churches. In 1971, they made their first trip to Haiti. Although they continued to minister in many countries, their hearts always went back to Haiti. They moved to Haiti in 1991 and have never looked back. They work to help those living in poverty in Haiti. Read Sherry’s Journal to learn about Bobby and Sherry’s daily life in Haiti.
Sign In WHC ElkhartWorld Harvest Church Elkhart Tell a Friend! Facebook Icon Twitter Icon Get to Know Us | Ministries | FAQ | Get Connected with Us | FAQ | FAQ About Pastor Rod Parsley Pastor Rod Parsley You may already know of Rod Parsley – as a TV host, evangelist, educator, humanitarian and statesman. At WHC Elkhart you’ll come to know him simply as Pastor – in many ways an ordinary man whose earthly success is directly linked to his willingness to be used by God in extraordinary ways.
Saturday, 14 July 2018
SLAVES AND SLAVERY IN JAMAICA Under the command of Penn and Venables the English captured Jamaica from the Spanish in 1655. In 1662 there were about 400 Negro slaves on the island. As the cultivation of sugar cane was introduced, the number of slaves grew to 9,504 by 1673. The landowners acquired more slaves to do the work on the estates, and in 1734 there were 86,546 slaves. In 1775 there were 192,787. The 19th century Almanacs on this site show the numbers of slaves on each property, until slavery was finally abolished. In the meantime, there were movements in England pushing for the abolition of slavery. In 1807 the African slave trade was abolished by Parliament, effective January 1, 1808. Theoretically this meant that no more slaves could be brought from Africa to the colonies in the British West Indies, but slaves could be transported from one colony to the other. Recognizing that the law was not being adhered to, the House of Commons in England passed a bill in 1815 requiring the registration of slaves. It became effective when it was adopted by the colonial legislatures. In 1816 an act was passed for a more particular return of slaves with more information, effective in June 1817, to keep a stricter check on any movement of the slaves. Returns were made until 1834. In 1823 the British government pledged to adopt measures for the abolition of slavery in the colonies. In the ensuing years there was a considerable exchange of letters on the subject between Britain and the colonies, particularly the legislatures and planters. The slaves by this time were agitated about their status, as the slave trade had already been abolished. In 1824 there was a slave insurrection in Hanover, followed in 1831 by a more widespread insurrection in the county of Cornwall. In June 1833 the governor wrote a Proclamation to the slaves to clarify their status. By December 1833 there was a Bill for the abolition of slavery, and it became effective on August 1, 1834. At that time all slaves became apprentices. They remained working for the same slave masters. The system was a failure, and that too was abolished. Slaves received their unrestricted freedom on August 1, 1838. Relative to slavery in the British colony of Jamaica, please see the following items on this site: 1702-1787 Numbers of Slaves Shipped Among the manuscripts donated by C. E. Long to the British Museum there were statistics on the number of slaves shipped into and out of Jamaica from 1702 to 1787. See the combined data at Slave shipments 1732 First Maroon War A Letter from the Governor concerning the First Maroon War, and steps taken in the aftermath. 1754 Runaway Slaves Excerpts from the Courant for June 22 to 29, 1754, contain the names of some runaway slaves or indentured servants, and information about them. See Courant 1754. 1760-1810 Persons declared to be "white by law" or "free" Acts of the Jamaican Assembly 1760-1810 with respect to certain people of African or part-African descent. Acts of Assembly, and Acts of Assembly (2) 1776 Slave Revolt Reports of the 1776 slave uprising in Hanover, taken from newspapers, and private letters. 1787 Slaves in DuBourg Marriage Contract The Marriage Contract between Joseph Thomas Patrice DuBourg and Josephine Charlotte Benigne Brusle widow de Mauleon (translated from the French). The contract lists the names of 95 slaves. 1788 Slave Count A Return of the Number of White Inhabitants, Free People of Colour and Slaves in Jamaica in 1788, by Parish. This list is from CO 137/87. It consists of total number of persons in each category in each parish, and it contains no names. It also shows the number of Maroons in each area. It is typical of the kind of "census" that was sent to England from Jamaica in the early days. See 1788 Return. 1789 Letter, and data on slaves on the slave ship "Crescent" Letter from John Fowler, Jamaica, dated 1789, to James Stothert, referring to purchase of slaves. An analysis of data for the ship "Crescent," and crew and slaves on board. See Fowler 1789 1790 List of Slaves at Golden Grove List of Slaves on Golden Grove Estate 30th June 1790. This estate was in St. Thomas in the East. 1790 Statistics on Slave Trade with Africa Slave tables from the 1790 Almanac, showing statistics on slave trade with Africa. 1790 Letter, document, and data on slaves on the slave ship "Sarah" Letter from J. Fowler, Jamaica, dated September 1790, concerning a recent delivery of slaves on the slave ship "Sarah". An analysis of data for the ship "Sarah," trips made, and slaves on board. A Bill of Sale for provisions purchased by John Fowler for the ship "Sarah" dated August 30, 1790. See Fowler 1790 1791 Slaves on New Canaan Estate New Canaan Estate, St. James, Jamaica. Marriage settlement, November 2, 1791, between George William Ricketts and Letitia Mildmay. It includes a schedule with the names of about 200 slaves. 1792 Voyage of the slave ship "Daniel" The ship "Daniel" left Africa in 1792 with slaves to be delivered to John Fowler in Martha Brae/ Falmouth, Trelawny. An analysis of the mortality rate of the slaves and crew. See Voyage of the "Daniel" 1792. 1792 Notice concerning Runaway Slaves It was common to put a Notice in the newspaper to seek the capture and return of Runaway Slaves. This is an example. 1793 Slave List List of Slaves on Friendship Estate and Thatch Hill Penn in Trelawny in 1793 1793-1806 Runaway Slaves The Royal Gazette often listed the names and descriptions of runaway slaves, and the rewards offered by their slave masters for their return. 1802-1833 Religion among the Slaves 1802-1833 Colonial Office Correspondence on the subject of Religion among the slaves. Some Slave Baptisms 1804-1829 Some baptisms of Slaves and People of Colour 1804-1811 and 1824-1829, in the Roman Catholic Church, Kingston. Some Slave Baptisms 1810-1811, in the Roman Catholic Church, Kingston. 1805 Sale of Land and Slaves Sale of land and slaves, Levy to Cerf. See Deed of Sale. 1806 Slave Baptisms Baptisms of some slaves 1806 in the Anglican Church in St. Ann, showing the former slave name and the new baptismal name. 1806-1814 Slave Baptisms Baptisms of some slaves 1806-1814 in the Anglican Church in St. Ann, showing the former slave name and the new baptismal name. 1807 Sale of Slave Deed of Sale, Henriques to Henry Cerf. See slave sale. 1807-1808 Abolition of the Slave Trade 1807-1808: Colonial Office Correspondence in the interlude between the passing of the Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade and its implementation. 1808-1810 Continuing discussion on Abolition of the Slave Trade 1808-1810: Excerpts from Colonial Office Correspondence concerning the Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade and the continuing argument between the Government in Britain and the Assembly in Jamaica. 1814-1817 Baptisms of Slaves 1814-1817 Returns of baptisms of slaves in Hanover, showing names of properties and proprietors, and number of slave baptisms by date, from Colonial Office Correspondence. 1815-1817 Reaction to Registry Bill 1815-1817: The reaction to the Registry Bill proposed for the Registration of Slaves, taken from Colonial Office Correspondence. 1816-1831 Amelioration of Slave Code 1816-1831 Amelioration of Slave Code, taken from Colonial Office Correspondence. 1817 Slave Returns From the Slave Registers for St. Ann for 1817, four returns of slaves from the T71/43 records in the Public Records Office (National Archives) in England. 1817 Slave Registers for properties of Richard Dickson The 1817 Slave Registers for Cousins Cove in Hanover. The 1817 Slave Registers for Davis Cove in Hanover. 1817-1832 Slave Returns Some slaves, found listed in documents in the Public Records Office (now the National Archives), London, as "belonging to" Garsias, 1817, 1820, 1823, 1826, 1829, 1832. Garsia2 Some lists of slaves belonging to Blair in Westmoreland and St. Elizabeth, 1817-1832. Some lists of slaves belonging to James in St. Elizabeth, 1817-1832. Some lists of slaves belonging to James, Elizabeth and the sons of Jonathan James, in St. Elizabeth, 1817-1832. 1818-1820 Slave Baptisms and Marriages Belmont, St. Ann Methodist Baptisms of Slaves at Belmont in St. Ann were the first Methodist Baptisms in Jamaica, followed by some Negro Marriages. 1819-1826 Slave Baptisms and Marriages Montego Bay circuit Methodist Baptisms and Marriages of Slaves in the Montego Bay Circuit. For later baptisms of slaves by the Methodists, until the abolition of slavery see Methodist. 1818-1834 Slave Marriages in Dissenter Churches Methodist Marriages of Slaves in the St. Ann Circuit 1818-1834. Methodist Marriages of Slaves in the Kingston Circuit 1819-1834. Methodist Marriages of Slaves in the Montego Bay circuit 1818-1834. Methodist Marriages of Slaves in the Falmouth circuit 1824-1834. Manumissions of Slaves 1820-1825 These lists give the date, name of slave being freed, and the name of the person by whom the slave was manumitted. Manumissions Addendum to Manumissions. 1821 Mortgage of Land and Slaves Mortgage from Wolff to Cerf. See mortgage. 1821-1822 Slaves and the Courts 1821-1822: Slaves and the Courts. Three incidents reflecting the increasingly tense situation, as found in Colonial Office Correspondence 1821-1825 Slave Marriages These Returns of Slave Marriages have been transcribed from Colonial Office Correspondence CO137/162 Slave Marriages in the Parish of Portland, 1821-1825 Slave Marriages in the City and Parish of Kingston, 1821 Slave Marriages in the City and Parish of Kingston, 1822 Slave Marriages in the City and Parish of Kingston, 1823 Slave Marriages in the City and Parish of Kingston, 1824 Slave Marriages in the City and Parish of Kingston, 1825 Slave Marriages in the Parishes of Hanover and Trelawny, 1821-1825. The Hanover record includes the names of Estates that gave permission for the marriages. Slave Marriages in the Parishes of St. John and St. Dorothy, 1821-1825. The records include the names of owners and Estates that gave permission for the marriages. Slave Marriages in the Parish of St. Thomas in the Vale, 1821-1825. The records include the names of owners and Estates that gave permission for the marriages. Slave Marriages in the Parish of Vere, 1821-1825. The records include the names of Estates that gave permission for the marriages. Slave Marriages in the Parish of Manchester, 1821-1825 Slave Marriages in the Parish of St. Catherine, 1821-1825 Slave Marriages in the Parish of Port Royal, 1821-1825. The records include the names of owners and Estates that gave permission for the marriages. Slave Marriages in the Parish of St. James, 1821-1825. The records include the names of owners and Estates that gave permission for the marriages. NOTE: The reports for the other Parishes contained numbers only, and no names. 1822 Conveyance of Land and Slaves Deed from Cerf to Wolff. See Conveyance. 1824 Correspondence on Hanover Slave Rebellion July 1824: The aftermath of the Hanover Slave Rebellion, as found in Colonial Office Correspondence 1831 Slave Insurrection List of Properties Burned in 1831 Slave Insurrection This report is taken from the 1834 book "Jamaica, as it was, as it is, and as it may be." There is a list of the properties burned in the County of Cornwall with the names of proprietors and properties, and the number of slaves. The list for St. James also includes the types of buildings that were burned. The list is followed by an explanation of its contents, and estimates of the financial losses caused . See 1831 uprising. 1831 Slave Insurrection reports From a New York newspaper, brief accounts of the 1831-1832 slave rebellion. 1831 Comments on Slave Insurrection The 1831 Slave Insurrection: Excerpts from letters from Jamaica stating opinions and the underlying issues, as found in Colonial Office Correspondence. 1831 Returns of Maroons In 1655 the Spaniards, who held Jamaica, surrendered to the English of the expedition led by Venables. Before fleeing to Cuba from Jamaica's North Coast (from which Runaway Bay got its name), the Spanish freed their slaves, leaving them behind in the hope that they would fight the English. The slaves fled to the interior mountains. They were later called "Maroons" (probably from the Spanish word "cimarron" meaning "wild, untamed"). The numbers of the original Maroons were increased by the addition of runaway slaves who escaped their English masters. The Maroons sometimes raided the English plantations. In 1665 the English offered the Maroons land and full freedom if they would surrender. The offer was ignored by the Maroons, who knew that they were already free, and would not trust the English. Skirmishes between the English and the Maroons continued, finally escalating into Maroon Wars in 1738-1739 and ending with the signing of Treaties. Commissioners were appointed for the several Maroon townships and settlements, located in the Cockpit Country, and in Portland. The 1831 Returns of the Maroons have been transcribed from CO 140/121 (Colonial Office Correspondence in the National Archives) for this site. The Returns contain the names of about 1600 people, and provide the ages of most of them. Some of the Maroons were also slaveholders, and their slaves were included in the Census. See the Returns of the Maroons : Moore Town Officers and men Moore Town Women and slaves Charles Town Scot's Hall Accompong _______________ In 1740 Nanny, leader of the Maroons of Nanny Town, was granted land in Portland by King George II. The details may be seen on the Return of Land Grants in which hers is Grant #55. 1832-1833 Comments before Emancipation 1832-1833 Comments on Emancipation, prior to the government's final proposals,as found in Colonial Office Correspondence. 1833 Slaves part of an Estate The Inventory of the estate of George Huie of Trelawny contains the names of over 50 slaves. 1838 Conveyance of Apprentices A Conveyance from Anthony Wilkinson to John Clark in 1838 included the names of 112 slaves, who were by then apprentices. 1838 Proclamation to Apprentices A proclamation by Governor Smith concerning apprentices from Colonial Office Correspondence CO 137/231-232. 1838, August 1, Emancipation Emancipation 1838, a view of Spanish Town square and the celebrations. 1838 Slave Compensation Report of Slave Compensation paid to former slave owners in St. Thomas. 1839-1845, Moravian records Reception of members in the mission in Lititz, St. Elizabeth 1839-1845, containing new name, old slave name, country of origin, and residence in Jamaica . See links to Lititz receptions. Emancipation and the Economy of Jamaica Excerpts from the book Jamaica in 1850 look at some of the causes of the economic problems of Jamaica in 1850. Slaves and Apprentices in Church Registers Throughout the Registers of the various churches that are found on this site, there are people identified as slaves or apprentices. Many of the people in the early Methodist Registers of baptisms were slaves. Using the Search button, a search should be done for them by name, or doing general searches on the words "slave" or "slaves". Slaves in Wills The names of slaves may often be found in Wills, as slave 'owners' left their slaves to their descendants or others. Sometimes a testator left instructions in the Will for certain slaves to be freed. For an example of a will with a long list of slaves, see John Malcolm's will . Slaves in Inventories and Appraisals An Inventory and Appraisal was made of the personal property and rights of deceased persons as a part of Probate. For some Inventories that contained the names of hundreds of slaves , see Inventories and Appraisals. © 2013. Jamaican Family Search hereby grants you a limited license to copy and use the materials provided on this site solely for your personal, non-commercial use. No other use of the site or materials is authorized. You agree that any copy of the materials (or any portion of the materials) that you make shall retain all copyright and other proprietary notices contained therein. Posting of materials on other Web Sites is strictly prohibited. GO TO: Home Plan of this website Help - Frequently Asked Questions Jamaica Almanacs Slave-owners, Civil & Military officers, Magistrates etc. Items in the Samples Directory Items in the Members Directory Transcriptions from Registers and Wills (Church of England, Dissenters, Civil Registration) Jamaican Roman Catholic Church Registers - transcriptions Jamaican Methodist Baptisms - transcriptions Jewish births marriages deaths - transcriptions Photographs, maps, prints, etc.
Jamaican Maroons From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search This article needs attention from an expert in Ethnic groups. Please add a reason or a talk parameter to this template to explain the issue with the article. WikiProject Ethnic groups may be able to help recruit an expert. (February 2009) Jamaican Maroons Regions with significant populations Jamaica Languages Jamaican Patois, Kromanti Related ethnic groups Coromantee, Jamaicans of African descent, Maroon people The Jamaican Maroons are descendants of maroons, Africans who escaped from slavery on the island of Jamaica and established free communities in the mountainous interior, primarily in the eastern parishes. African slaves imported during the Spanish period likely were the first to develop such refugee communities. The English expanded the importation of slaves to support their extensive development of sugar cane plantations. Africans in Jamaica continually fought and revolted, with many who escaped becoming Maroon. The revolts had the effect of disrupting the sugar economy in Jamaica and making it less profitable. The revolts simmered down only after the British government promised to free the slaves if they stopped revolting; and slavery was abolished in 1834. The Windward Maroons and those from the Cockpit Country resisted conquest in the First Maroon War, which the government ended in 1738-1739 by making treaties to grant lands and to respect their autonomy, in exchange for peace and aiding the colonial militia if needed against external enemies. Tensions between British colonial Governor and the residents of Trelawny town resulted in the Second Maroon War from 1795-1796. Although the governor promised leniency if men surrendered, the Assembly insisted on deportation of 600 Maroons to British settlements at Nova Scotia. After Freetown was established in West Africa as a British colony in 1792 (present-day Sierra Leone), the British deported additional Maroons fearing slave rebellion on Jamaica. Contents 1 History 1.1 Establishment of the Leeward and Windward Maroons 1.2 First Maroon War 1731-1739 1.3 Intervention in Tacky's War 1760 1.4 Second Maroon War 1795-1796 2 Maroons in the 21st century 3 Films 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links History Further information: Slavery in the Spanish New World colonies and Slavery in the British and French Caribbean In all likelihood, the words "Maroon" and "Seminole" share the same origin in the Spanish word cimarrón, meaning "wild" or "untamed". This word usually referred to runaways or castaways and is ultimately derived from the word for "thicket" in Old Spanish. When the British captured Jamaica in 1655, the Spanish colonists fled. Many of their slaves escaped and, together with free blacks and mulattoes, former slaves, and some native Taíno coalesced into several heterogenous groups in the Jamaican interior. Some created palenques, or stockaded mountain farms at Lluidas Vale in modern-day St Catharine Parish under Juan de Bolas (also known as Lubolo). Toward the western end of Cockpit Country were the ‘Varmahaly or Karmahaly Negroes’ under the leadership of Juan de Serras; a third group was active in the region of Porus, in modern Manchester Parish; and there was possibly a fourth in the Blue Mountains. During the first decade of British rule, these groups were active on behalf of the Spanish. But, as it became increasingly obvious that the British would hold their conquest, the group run by de Bolas changed its position. Faced with discovery and defeat in 1659, de Bolas allied with the British and guided their troops on a raid which resulted in the final expulsion of the Spanish in 1660. In exchange, in 1663, Governor Lyttleton signed the first maroon treaty, granting de Bolas and his people land on the same terms as British settlers. The colonial authorities paid the men of de Bolas to hunt the supporters of de Serras and recent runaways. The other maroon groups remained independent in the mountainous interior of Jamaica, surviving by subsistence farming and periodic raids of plantations. These initial maroon groups dwindled, migrating or merging with settlers. Others may have coalesced to form the nucleus of what would later be called the Windward Maroons. Over time, runaway slaves increased the maroon population, which eventually came to control large areas of the Jamaican mountainous interior. Establishment of the Leeward and Windward Maroons Between 1673 and 1690 there were several major slave uprisings, mainly prompted by newly arrived, highly militarized Coromantee groups from the Ashanti Empire. On 31 July 1690, a rebellion involving 500 slaves from the Sutton estate in Clarendon Parish led to the formation of Jamaica’s most stable and best organized Maroon group. Although some were killed, recaptured or surrendered, more than 200, including women and children, remained free after the rebellion was considered over. They established an Ashanti-style polity based in the eastern Cockpit Country, notably Trelawny Town; the most famous ruler of the western Maroons was Cudjoe. They incorporated outsiders only after newcomers had satisfied a strict probationary period. The leader of the eastern Maroons when they agreed to peace was Quao. The Windward Maroons, in the wilder parts of eastern Jamaica, were always composed of separate highly mobile and culturally heterogeneous groups. It is possible that the runaway slaves from de Serras' group of Karmahaly Maroons formed the initial nucleus of the Windward Maroons. From early on, the Jamaican governors considered their settlements to impede British development of the interior. They ordered raids on the Maroon settlements in 1686 and 1702, to little effect. By about 1720, a stronger Windward community had developed around the culturally Africanised group of three villages known as Nanny Town, under the spiritual leadership of Queen Nanny, an Ashanti woman, sometimes in allegiance and sometimes in competition with other Windward groups. She was known for her exceptional leadership skills, especially in guerrilla warfare during the First Maroon War. One tactic particular to the Jamaican Maroons involved the art of camouflage using plants. Her remains are reputedly buried at "Bump Grave" in Moore Town, the main town of the Windward Maroons, who are concentrated in and around the Rio Grande valley in the northeastern parish of Portland. Queen Nanny, also known as Granny Nanny (died c.1750s), is the only woman honored as one of Jamaica's National Heroes. She has been immortalised in songs and legends. First Maroon War 1731-1739 Main article: First Maroon War Disturbed by plantation raiding, the colonial authorities of Jamaica wanted to eradicate the maroon communities in order to promote British settlement. Their strategy, beginning in the 1730s, was to break off lines of communication between the Windward and Leeward Maroons, then first pick off the less organized Windward Maroons. In practice, the Maroon troops’ command of the territory and skill in guerrilla warfare gave them a strong advantage over colonial forces. After much fighting, the British took and destroyed Nanny Town in 1734, but most of the Windward Maroons simply dispersed and formed new settlements. At this point, however, fighting shifted to Leeward, where the British troops had equally limited success against the well-trained and organized forces of Cudjoe. By the mid-1730s, warfare was proving costly to Maroons and British alike and was turning into an ongoing stalemate. Cudjoe rejected suggestions of a treaty in 1734 and 1736, but by 1738 he agreed to parley with John Guthrie. This local planter and militia officer was known to and respected by the Maroons. In 1739, the treaty signed under British governor Edward Trelawny granted Cudjoe’s Maroons 1500 acres of land between their strongholds of Trelawny Town and Accompong in the Cockpits and a certain amount of political autonomy and economic freedoms, in return for which the Maroons were to provide military support in case of invasion or rebellion, and to return runaway slaves in exchange for a bounty of two dollars each. This last clause in the treaty caused tension between the maroons and the enslaved black population, although from time to time runaways from the plantations still found their way into maroon settlements. In addition, a British superintendent was to be assigned to live in each maroon town. In 1740, similar treaties were signed by Quao and Nanny, major leaders of the Windward Maroons. The Windward Maroons were originally located at Crawford's Town and the new Nanny Town (now called Moore Town). However, in 1754, Quao attempted to overthrow Edward Crawford, the new Maroon leader of the Windward Maroon town, and in the resulting conflict, Crawford's Town was destroyed. Governor Roger Hope Elletson re-established control over the uprising with the help of other Maroons. He then ordered that the Maroons of Crawford's Town be resettled in the new, nearby Windward Maroon towns of Charles Town and Scott's Hall. Intervention in Tacky's War 1760 Main article: Tacky's War In April 1760, the Jamaican government called upon the maroons to honor their treaties and come to their assistance during the major slave uprising led by the Fante leader, Tacky. The Windward Maroons were first to be mobilized. Their intervention often appeared half-hearted: the Scott's Hall Maroons began by claiming outstanding arrears in bounty, while those of Down's Cove simply took cover when attacked by the rebels. In the end, it was a Scott's Hall Maroon, Lieutenant Davy, who killed Tacky during a skirmish. Although the loss of Tacky's leadership essentially ended the rebellion, by October, related uprisings broke out on the leeward side of the island. Cudjoe's well-trained forces were also mobilized to help deal with them, apparently to good effect. Second Maroon War 1795-1796 Main article: Second Maroon War The Second Maroon War began in 1795 against the background of the British Jamaican plantocracy panicked by the excesses of French Revolution, and by the corresponding start of a slave revolt in neighboring Saint-Domingue, which ended with the independence of Haiti in 1804. At the same time, an increasing hunger for land among expanding maroon communities in Jamaica coincided with several more immediate and proximate causes of grievance among the maroons of Trelawny Town. The treaties following the First Maroon War had called for the assignment of a white ‘superintendent’ in each maroon community. Trelawny Town had objected to the official recently assigned to them and eventually expelled him. At this, the new, hardline Governor, Balcarres, sent William Fitch to march on Trelawny with a military force to demand their immediate submission. Balcarres ignored the advice of local planters, who suggested giving the Maroons some more land in order to avoid conflict. The governor refused to heed the advice, and instead provoked a conflict that could have been avoided by demanding their unconditional surrender. The Trelawny Maroons chose to fight and were initially successful, fighting a guerrilla war in small bands under several captains, of whom the most noted were Johnson, Parkinson and Palmer. The casualties suffered by Fitch and his men were significantly higher than those felt by the Maroons of Trelawny Town. When the Trelawny Town Maroons killed Fitch, several of his officers, some Accompong Maroon trackers, and many militia soldiers in an ambush, Balcarres appointed a new general, George Walpole. This new general suffered more setbacks, until he eventually opted to besiege the Cockpit Country on a massive scale, surrounding it with watchposts, firing in shells from a long distance, and intending to destroy or cut off all maroon provision grounds. Meanwhile, maroon attempts to recruit plantation slaves met with a mixed response, and other maroon communities maintained neutrality. Accompong Town, however, fought on the side of the colonial militias against Trelawny Town. Despite signs that the siege was working, Balcarres grew impatient and sent to Cuba for a hundred hunting dogs and handlers. The reputation of these was so fearsome that their arrival quickly prompted the surrender of the majority of Trelawny forces. The Maroons however, only put down their arms on condition that they would not be deported, and Walpole gave his word that would be the case. To Walpole's dismay, Balcarres refused to treat with the defeated maroons and had them deported from Jamaica, at first to Nova Scotia, then to the new British colony of Sierra Leone, and joined the ‘African American founders’ who established the Colony of Sierra Leone and the settlement of Freetown, Sierra Leone. From the 1830s on some Maroons (or their descendents) returned to Jamaica to work as free laborers (although many of these returnees resettled in Sierra Leone) (see Jamaican Maroons in Sierra Leone) or formed the new Creole ethnic group of Sierra Leone which established diaspora communities along the West African shores from Sierra Leone to the Gambia to Fernando Pó. Maroons in the 21st century Hon. Colonel Ferron Williams, Colonel-in-Chief and elected leader of Accompong To this day, the maroons in Jamaica are to a small extent autonomous and separate from Jamaican culture. Those of Accompong have preserved their land since 1739. The isolation used to their advantage by their ancestors has today resulted in their communities being amongst the most inaccessible on the island. Today, the four official Maroon towns still in existence in Jamaica are Accompong Town, Moore Town, Charles Town and Scott's Hall. They hold lands allotted to them in the 1739-1740 treaties with the British. These maroons still maintain their traditional celebrations and practices, some of which have West African origin. For example, the council of a Maroon settlement is called an Asofo, from the Twi Akan word asafo (assembly, church, society). Native Jamaicans and island tourists are allowed to attend many of these events. Others considered sacred are held in secret and shrouded in mystery. Singing, dancing, drum-playing and preparation of traditional foods form a central part of most gatherings. In their largest town, Accompong, in the parish of St. Elizabeth, the Leeward Maroons have a vibrant community of about 600. Tours of the village are offered to foreigners. They hold a large festival annually on 6 January to commemorate the signing of the peace treaty with the British after the First Maroon War. Moore Town, located between the Blue Mountains and John Crow Mountains in Portland Parish, was relisted on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2008 for its Maroon heritage, particularly music. Films 1984 - Caribbean Crucible. From Repercussions: A Celebration of African-American Music TV series, program 6. Directed by Dennis Marks and Geoffrey Haydon. See also Coromantee Jamaican Maroons in Sierra Leone Maroon (people) Maroon Town, Sierra Leone Dread & Alive, comic series centered on a maroon. Sierra Leone Creole people Black Nova Scotians Notes "Seminole - Origin and meaning of Seminole by Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com. Madrilejo, N; Lombard, H; Torres, JB (2015). "Origins of marronage: Mitochondrial lineages of Jamaica's Accompong Town Maroons". Am. J. Hum. Biol. 27: 432–7. doi:10.1002/ajhb.22656. PMID 25392952. Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, p. 70 Mavis Campbell, The Maroons of Jamaica 1655-1796: a History of Resistance, Collaboration & Betrayal (Massachusetts: Bergin & Garvey, 1988), pp. 25-26. Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, p. 71 Bev Carey, The Maroon Story: The Authentic and Original History of the Maroons in the History of Jamaica 1490-1880 (Kingston, Jamaica: Agouti Press, 1997), p. 113. Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, p. 71-74 Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, p. 74 Sainsbury, W. Noel. "America and West Indies". Calendar of State Papers Colonial, America and West Indies. 1, 5 (1574-1660, 1661-1668). Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, p. 75-76 Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, pp. 77-78 Philip Thicknesse, Memoirs and Anecdotes of Philip Thicknesse (Dublin: Craisberry and Campbell, 1790), pp. 56-77 Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, p. 78-81 Mavis Campbell, The Maroons of Jamaica 1655-1796: a History of Resistance, Collaboration & Betrayal (Massachusetts: Bergin & Garvey, 1988), pp. 48-49. Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, p. 78-79 Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, p. 81 Jamaican Ministry of Education, Youth & Culture: Jamaica's National Heroes Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, p. 82-83 Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, p. 84 Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, p. 85 Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, p. 87 Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, p. 87-88 Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, p. 89-90 Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, p. 91-92 H.P. Jacobs, ‘Roger Hope Elletson Letter Book 1766-1768’, Jamaican Historical Review, Vol. 1, No. 2 (1946), p. 216 Journals of the Assembly of Jamaica, Vol. 6, 30 October 1770, p. 283. Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, p. 130-131 Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, pp. 136-137 Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, p. 135-136 Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, p. 211-214 Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, p. 214 Mavis Campbell, The Maroons of Jamaica 1655-1796: a History of Resistance, Collaboration & Betrayal (Massachusetts: Bergin & Garvey, 1988), pp. 209-249. Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, pp. 215, 217-219 Campbell, The Maroons of Jamaica, pp. 209-249. Mavis Campbell, Maroons of Jamaica, pp. 209-249. Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, p. 219 Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, p. 218 Mavis Campbell, The Maroons of Jamaica 1655-1796: a History of Resistance, Collaboration & Betrayal (Massachusetts: Bergin & Garvey, 1988), p. 220. Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, p. 220-221 Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, p. 222-223 "USI Home Page". www.understandingslavery.com. Grant, John. Black Nova Scotians. Nova Scotia: The Nova Scotia Museum, 1980. Fortin (2006), p. 23. Baron,Robert & Cara, Ana C. Creolization as Cultural Creativity. p. 152 Bev Carey, The Maroon Story: The Authentic and Original History of the Maroons in the History of Jamaica 1490-1880 (Kingston, Jamaica: Agouti Press, 1997). Sangster, Ian, Jamaica: A Benn Holiday Guide. 1973. Anyamesɛm Anaa Twerɛ Kronkron Akan Kasa Mu (The Bible in Twi: Asante), The Bible Society of Ghana, Accra, 1964. Rottmann, W. J., compiler, Kristo Asafo Abakọsẹm Tẇi Kasa Mu (Church History in Tshi), Basel: Basel Evangelical Missionary Society, 1913. A History of the Maroons of Jamaica, Farin Voice "Government of Accompong". Campbell, Mavis Christine (1988), The Maroons of Jamaica, 1655-1796: A History of Resistance, Collaboration & Betrayal, Granby, MA: Bergin & Garvey, ISBN 0-89789-148-1 Edwards, Bryan (1796), "Observations on the disposition, character, manners, and habits of life, of the Maroon negroes of the island of Jamaica; and a detail of the origin, progress, and termination of the late war between those people and the white inhabitants", in Edwards, Bryan (1801), Historical Survey of the Island of Saint Domingo, London: J. Stockdale, pp. 303-360. References Campbell, Mavis C. The Maroons of Jamaica, 1655-1796: A History of Resistance, Collaboration & Betrayal. Granby, Mass: Bergin & Garvey, 1988. ISBN 0-89789-148-1 Carey, Bev. (1997). The Maroon story: The authentic and original history of the Maroons in the history of Jamaica, 1490-1880. A Maroon and Jamaica heritage series. Gordon Town, Jamaica: Agouti Press. Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains: Resistance to Slavery in the British West Indies. Cornell University Press, 1982. ISBN 0-8014-1252-8 Dallas, R. C. The History of the Maroons, from Their Origin to the Establishment of Their Chief Tribe at Sierra Leone. 2 vols. London: Longman, 1803. Fortin, Jeffrey A. "'Blackened Beyond Our Native Hue': Removal, Identity and the Trelawney Maroons on the Margins of the Atlantic World, 1796-1800", Citizenship Studies, Vol. 10, No. 1, 5-34, February 2006. Thompson, Alvin O. Flight to Freedom: African Runaways and Maroons in the Americas. Kingston: University of the West Indies Press, 2006. ISBN 976-640-180-2 Further reading Bilby, Kenneth. "Jamaican Maroons at the Crossroads: Losing Touch With Tradition," Caribbean Review, Fall, 1980. Bilby, Kenneth M. (2005). True-born M'[/. maroons. New World diasporas. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Blake, Edith. "The Maroons of Jamaica", North American Review, 1898, online text at Archive.org, via JSTOR Campbell, Mavis C. The Maroons of Jamaica 1655-1796: A History of Resistance, Collaboration & Betrayal. Granby, MA: Bergin & Garvey, 1988. Dunham, Katherine. Journey to Accompong. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1946. External links Common Medicinal Plants of Portland, Jamaica, Maroon/Marocon culture "Queen Nanny Windward Maroons", Itz Caribbean vte Jamaica Jamaicans vte African diaspora vte UNESCO Oral and Intangible Heritage: representative list Categories: Jamaican MaroonsMaroons (people)History of Sierra Leone